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23 Jan 2021

Incorporate cost and benefit information into tools (e.g., visualization tools) that can support project planning and assist in communications with multiple audiences Examples include such as the Connecticut Nonpoint Education for Municipal Officials (CT NEMO) Rain Garden App; provide information about the multiple ecosystem services provided by green infrastructure, such as the U.S. Forest Service's i-Tree tool that estimates ecosystem services from trees used for urban stormwater runoff control that also provide local cooling services. Examples cited in the submissions include the SDGs, Sendai Framework, CBD, UNCCD, Fifth session of the 2021 United Nations Environment Assembly, … Climate-ADAPT has been unanimously acknowledged by Member States and adaptation stakeholders, and most countries have involved themselves in its development by providing information on national action. The Commission adopted an EU adaptation strategy in April 2013 which has been welcomed by the Member States. For example, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has been helping communities better understand hydrologic modeling (U.S. The role of the EU can be especially useful to enhance solidarity among Member States and ensure that disadvantaged regions and those most affected by climate change are capable of taking the necessary measures to adapt. Coordinate across federal, state, local, and tribal agencies Engage the full suite of agencies and departments, particularly at the federal level, that affect or could be affected by solutions to address changing climate conditions in stormwater management. For instance, the recently developed Celebrate Senior Center in Fredericksburg, Virginia, is using 65 bioretention areas and 15 water quality swales to treat 43 acres of manicured landscape. It should be explored how developing countries, except the least developed and small island developing states, could contribute over time in line with their financial capability. Explicit climate change adaptation context, i.e. 34 pp. None of the provided alternatives are likely to be appropriate in all circumstances; the appropriateness of each alternative should be considered in the local context for which it is being considered. The definitive source of information about climate science is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society, and include: Coasts and European seas: overall rise in sea levels; increase in ocean acidification, sea surface temperature and ocean heat content; earlier seasonal appearance of various marine species; northward expansion of some fish and plankton species. The EU can promote adaptation action covering the whole EU territory, since lack of preparedness or inaction in one Member State may have negative consequences for neighbouring countries. Jurisdictions with MS4s can include green infrastructure as a control measure. This information is not a substitute for the professional advice of an environmental or climate change professional or attorney. BioSim has been used to predict how climate change might affect the risk of mountain pine beetleinfestations in western Canada. Unlike the first option, however, it would not necessarily generate predictable levels of funding since governments could choose to buy Clean Development Mechanism credits instead. The Adaptation Strategies below offer possible ways to address anticipated climate risks to water management. ACE, 2015) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) helps with preparedness planning for extreme events (FEMA, 2015). Below are five solutions that can both curb climate change and help us cope with its impacts at the same time: 1. Engage in existing peer-to-peer networks These networks connect communities at varying stages of implementation and include the GLAA-C, Urban Sustainability Directors Network (USDN), American Society of Adaptation Professionals (ASAP), and the Great Lakes Saint Lawrence Cities Initiative. Adaptation involves taking action so that we can be more resilient to our current climate, less susceptible to the impacts of future climate change and in a position to take advantage of opportunities. Blue Plains Wastewater Facility in Washington DC Reinforces Facility Against Floods, Anacortes, Washington Rebuilds Water Treatment Plant for Climate Change, Tampa Bay Diversifies Water Sources to Reduce Climate Risk, Southern Nevada Water Authority Assesses Vulnerability To Climate Change. Adaptation will most often have local, sector-specific benefits. The pages below offer possible ways to address public health risks to air quality, water quality, extreme heat, and waste issues related from anticipated climate changes. Terrestrial and marine ecosystems currently absorb roughly half of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Climate change can make it more difficult to properly manage hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. Better tools and know-how to design and implement adaptation strategies need to be developed. Convene stakeholders from across the watershed to address barriers Bringing together relevant agencies, organizations, and individuals responsible for stormwater management decisions from across watersheds can help address barriers presented by different regulations, budget limitations, and expectations for growth. Consider offering incentives for green infrastructure to manage stormwater. Protect Coastal Wetlands. Local decision makers are often working with old data. Climate change adaptation can lessen the economic costs of climate change, as illustrated by our model simulation and various examples around the world. Climate change information 8. The IPCC's role is to assess on a comprehensive, objective, open and transparent basis the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation. The degree to which a region is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes will also depend on its geographical location, socio-economic developments (population growth, energy demand, industrial, agricultural productivity and water availability) and adaptive capacity. Use land use build-out models to understand the maximum likely development in a region. UNEP has assisted over 70 projects on climate change adaptation at global, regional and national levels for over 50 countries. Consider incentives such as fast-track permitting for projects that adhere to a more strict set of requirements (e.g., projects that manage 80% of runoff onsite or incorporate a green roof). Climate changes can make it more difficult for communities to maintain air quality that protect human health and the environment. This ordinance can help local jurisdictions incorporate climate change projections or green infrastructure incentives into local legislation. As with mitigation, financing options need to be tailored to the actual investment needed. Communicate the overlap of "short-term" infrastructure lifetimes with longer term climate changes. Climate-ADAPT is dynamically managed, with a permanent updating of contents by the EEA, and some contracts going on to develop new tools or improve those existing, and facilitate its use by improving accessibility and dissemination. These sites, known as the Natura 2000 network is the largest network of protected areas in the world. For example, if climate change is a highly political issue, it may be useful to steer the conversation towards observed and projected changes for specific endpoints of concern (e.g., changes in 25-year storm event or the intensity of brief downpours) or green infrastructure's cobenefits to a community's livability and economic vitality. After the initial phase of increased funding, the mechanism would start to pay back the funds raised. Ecosystem based adaptation is often considered a no-regret option as it provides multiple services and promotes synergies. 1. Expand staff expertise in GIS or other data management processes (via training, new hires, or sharing of staff across the county or a group of municipalities). Accurate historical climate information can help serve as a bridge to discussions regarding future climate projections (which are less certain and may be less readily received by skeptical planners and decision makers). While society at large is expected to be affected, the most vulnerable (elderly, disabled and low-income households) are likely to be more susceptible to climate impacts. Share. Based on the issuance of bonds, this proposed Global Climate Financing Mechanism (GCFM) would allow early spending on priority climate-related actions. A Technology Mechanism was established at COP 16 in Cancun which is expected to facilitate the implementation of enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to support action on mitigation and adaptation to climate change. A multilateral insurance pool to cover disaster losses should be explored to complement existing funding mechanisms in case of climate-related natural disasters. Complementing the activities of Member States, the strategy supports action by promoting greater coordination and information-sharing between Member States, and by ensuring that adaptation considerations are addressed in all relevant EU policies. Sensitivity of a system is the extent to which changes in climate will affect the system in its current form, while the adaptive capacity of the system is its capacity to change in a way that makes it better equipped to deal with external influences. Communities will need to develop new ways of thinking and planning, such as analyzing decisions by their robustness over a range of potential changes, employing risk management techniques, using principles that maximize minimum losses or minimize maximum losses, and other approaches for decision making under uncertainty. The Technology Mechanism consists of the following two components:  the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network. Searchable Case Studies for Climate Change Adaptation. The Website has already become a reference for adaptation knowledge platforms, both within the EU and abroad; several neighbouring regions and countries have shown interest in mirroring the structure or even associating themselves with the platform. Climate change can make it more difficult for communities to provide drinking water and wastewater services, protect water quality, and maintain healthy aquatic environments. On 2 December 2015, the Australian Government released a National Climate Resilience and Adaptation Strategy. Both the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of a system will contribute to how vulnerable the system is to changes in climate. The framework proposed that all countries, should be required to draft comprehensive national adaptation strategies to ensure that costly and recurring climate impacts can be prevented as far as possible. The adaptation strategies provided on this site are intended to inform and assist communities in identifying potential alternatives. Use land use build-out models to understand the maximum allowable use This can include projections of the amount and location of development that may occur in a specified area as permitted by current land development ordinances. These include the least developed countries, small island developing states and African countries that are prone to extreme weather events such as drought, storms, floods and desertification. It provides several useful resources to support adaptation policy and decision making, such as a toolset for adaptation planning; a projects and case studies' database that can be selectively consulted (e.g. Adaptation to climate change has to be localized, given that adaptation to climate change is inevitably and unavoidably local (Blaikie et … Seek opportunities to incorporate climate change adaptation measures into existing plans … National institutions and international cooperation should be strengthened to disseminate knowledge and technologies for adaptation and climate resilient development. Mitigation – reducing climate change – involves reducing the flow of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, either by reducing sources of these gases (for example, the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat or transport) or enhancing the “sinks” that accumulate and store these gases (such as the oceans, forests and soil). EPA, as well as NOAA and other federal agencies provide tools, guides, and case studies of green infrastructure projects conducted with a large number of communities across the country. Climate change adaptation in fisheries and aquaculture – compilation of initial examples. Communities across the United States are anticipating, planning, and preparing for the impacts of climate change. Adaptation measures to maintain diversity and increase connectivity will be necessary to ensure the achievement of nature conservation objectives under changing climatic conditions. Harden shorelines with bulkheads – anchored, vertical barriers constructed at the shoreline to block erosion, Harden shorelines with revetments that armor the slope face of the shoreline, Harden shorelines with breakwaters – structures placed offshore to reduce wave action, Headland control – reinforce or accentuate an existing geomorphic feature or create an artificial headland (e.g., Geotextile tubes), Replace shoreline armoring with living shorelines – through beach nourishment, planting vegetation, etc, Remove shoreline hardening structures such as bulkheads, dikes, and other engineered structures to allow for shoreline migration, Plant SAV (such as sea grasses) to stabilize sediment and reduce erosion, Create marsh by planting the appropriate species – typically grasses, sedges, or rushes – in the existing substrate, Create dunes along backshore of beach; includes planting dune grasses and sand fencing to induce settling of wind-blown sands, Use natural breakwaters of oysters (or install other natural breakwaters) to dissipate wave action and protect shorelines, Install rock sills and other artificial breakwaters in front of tidal marshes along energetic estuarine shores, Restrict or prohibit development in erosion zones, Redefine riverine flood hazard zones to match projected expansion of flooding frequency and extent, Composite systems – incorporate elements of two or more methods (e.g., breakwater, sand fill, and planting vegetation). Climate risk management 17. Adopt more stringent policies Adopt more stringent policies such as stormwater fees and requirements for developers to manage water onsite to the maximum extent feasible. Animated film. At the same time, nature conservation contributes to increase resilience and maintain healthy ecosystems essential for any adaptation and mitigation strategy. Establish this protocol early in the project planning phase to avoid future confusion or mismanagement. Adaptation Examples Many forests and grasslands are taking steps to address the challenges brought on by climate change.These examples highlight how researchers and managers are working together to adapt lands to climate change at many different scales. Adaptation means anticipating the adverse effects of climate change and taking appropriate action to prevent or minimise the damage they can cause, or taking advantage of opportunities that may arise. Adaptation planning To achieve a score of 4 in the area of ‘disaster management’: Figure 16: 2015–16 sample distribution of the baseline local government Climate Change Adaptation Governance Scores prior to the Q CRC commencing. Consider regulatory changes at the federal or state level to minimize variance regarding stormwater infrastructure guidance and regulations among communities. An example of the type of actions, which even when they could be defined as adaptation actions to climate change, finally result in an increase of vulnerability of the system as a whole. A Joint EEAS-Commission Communication on EU-Maghreb relations also addresses climate change. Demonstrate the use of dynamical downscaling on research projects at the site scale. Partners in the community or neighboring jurisdictions may also be interested in pooling resources to develop or improve data sets. A share of the funds raised could also support emission mitigation activities, in particular those that generate synergies between mitigation and adaptation, such as reducing emissions from deforestation. Despite the potential of EbA to provide adaptation benefits, there is a lack of consensus on how to measure the success of this approach. Mitigation refers to our efforts to limit the man-made causes of climate change. However, growing evidence suggests that the capacity of the Earth's carbon sinks is weakening due to the continuous degradation of ecosystems. Address the likely need to facilitate a change in thinking to enable action in the face of uncertainties that have not been traditionally considered in decision making but now should be. National Climate Assessment Regions. "We know enough about climate change -- It's time for decisions now!" The Climate-ADAPT Adaptation Knowledge Platform was launched in March 2012, fulfilling the 2009 White Paper's objective to develop an EU adaptation clearinghouse mechanism. Any climate change adaptation strategy must be flexible and continue changing as new impacts are seen. If the loss of biodiversity continues - or accelerates - the achievement of the climate change goals could be compromised. This would provide certainty about the total amount of funding available. Adaptation, along with mitigation, is an essential part of addressing the challenges and opportunities associated with climate change. Current funding opportunities include: Two principal options for creating an innovative international source of additional funding have been identified. Planting street trees is an initiative that municipalities can implement to both reduce stormwater runoff (adaptation) and increase carbon storage (mitigation). the Green Climate Fund (GCF) agreed on in Cancun in 2010 and made operational in Durban in 2011, which includes a significant new share of multilateral funding for adaptation. The impacts of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystems present new challenges for nature conservation. The level of future impacts will depend on the magnitude of climate change and on socio‑economic and environmental factors. Funding for adaptation is provided through the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC. The White Paper established a framework for action focusing on four key pillars and included 33 actions: It built on the wide-ranging consultation launched in 2007 by the Green Paper on Adapting to Climate Change in Europe. Read more Some examples of local adaptation plans are available in the table below. Member States could use some of this revenue to honour their international funding commitments under the Copenhagen agreement. This can help stormwater managers consider the potential needs associated with projected increases in impervious surfaces. These effects, which include If better understood, it may motivate local planners to consider climate change when making infrastructure decisions. Stafford County anticipates that this project will demonstrate that green infrastructure solutions can offer amenities that increase the value of the landscape while managing stormwater onsite. Show how benefits and ROI have been realized through formats including videos or other readily accessible modes of communication. Simply updating storm standards to match current precipitation patterns can result in a marked improvement. This includes ensuring that adaptation action is consistent with mitigation and vice versa. Use pilot projects or those with minimal barriers to explore collaboration among agencies. Since 1999, even small MS4s within and outside urbanized areas have been required to obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit coverage. Other discernible human influences on climate comprehend ocean warming, continental-average temperatures, temperature extremes and wind patterns. The Impact Assessment accompanying the Communication on an EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change provides further inputs on the value added of EU intervention on adaptation. While development may be deterred when individual communities change local standards independently, potentially negative impacts could be avoided if surrounding municipalities agree to adopt similar policies. By Barry Caruth - Flickr It identifies a set of principles to guide effective adaptation practice and resilience building, and outlines the Government’s vision for a climate-resilient future. Coordinate regional policies to minimize the impact on individual communities. Greenhouse gas emissions 16. Effective measures directed at enhancing our capacity to adapt and at minimising, adjusting to and taking advantage of the consequences of climatic change (delivering adaptation actions) are required. The percentage could increase progressively in line with the country’s per capita income. Collaborate across departments to coordinate collection of data on the costs and benefits of green infrastructure. Environmentally-related migration and displacement are not a new phenomenon. In March 2009 the International Scientific Congress Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions concluded that the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories (or even worse) are being realised. Before adopting any particular strategy, it should be considered in the context provided by the primary source document from which it originated. Ensure that senior management is on-board and that the administrative and fiscal mechanisms of the city enable interdepartmental collaboration. Consider Cost and Benefits of Green Infrastructure. The White Paper presented by the European Commission proposed an EU framework on adaptation to strengthen the EU's resilience to cope with the impacts of a changing climate. The pages below offer possible ways to address anticipated climate risks to contaminated site management and disaster debris management. An Adaptation Strategy aims to increase society’s resilience to climate change. ABSTRACT This circular contains a selection of current and recent climate change adaptation activities and measures in … Also, use educational projects in schools or at community centers as opportunities to disseminate climate change information to the public. The ability to cope and adapt also differs across populations, economic sectors and regions within Europe. Create a much needed open space in a community with environmental justice concerns and soften the shoreline to accommodate sea-level rise. Reducing carbon emissions is no longer enough to halt the impacts of climate change. While much of the Climate Change conversation centers on carbon–a subject that so far has failed to bring people together for a solution–there are actually many other examples of Climate Change that aren’t talked about as much. A large number of early measures will even generate a net benefit to the economy, for instance measures to improve water use efficiency in areas that will suffer from water shortages. The EU Neighbourhood Policy seeks cooperation on climate matters in the Mediterranean region, assisting countries in developing climate change policies. and the implications this has for Member States policies. Decision makers can use local resources for climate change data from researchers at organizations within the area, such as universities, state meteorological agencies, and other organizations that may be involved in downscaling of climate change scenarios. Forest Service Climate Change Response Framework The Forest Service-supported CCRF is a clearinghouse of climate adaptation resources for forestry. Such partnerships can be fruitful when there are several crucial players working with the data to identify solutions (check local university websites for potential resources and partnering opportunities). Observed impacts of climate change are projected to continue due to further climate change. Climate Change Adaptation Resource Center (ARC-X) Contact Us. Take advantage of existing resources that promote information sharing. Seek opportunities to incorporate climate change adaptation measures into existing plans Examples may include comprehensive plans or watershed-scale plans. Develop a "wish-list" of data that should be collected to improve understanding of climate changes Stormwater managers and geographic information system (GIS) staff can begin to collect this needed local data (e.g., establish and maintain more local weather gauges and monitoring stations). The Cancun agreements reached at the COP 16 represent a significant step inviting all Parties to undertake "measures to enhance understanding, coordination and cooperation with regard to climate change induced displacement, migration and planned relocation". The financial contribution of each developed country should be comparable and based on the polluter pays principle – in other words, its allowed level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions - and ability to pay. Irrespective of the success of mitigation efforts, there will still be some degree of unavoidable climate change. Source document(s) are indicated. The EU should explore the possibility of developing a ‘front-loading’ mechanism to deliver substantial funding in the short term for the poorest and most vulnerable developing countries. Determine the level of plan that may be the best scale at which to address climate change. Assess whether green infrastructure could be included as a control measure in Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s). Consider updates to data management practices to facilitate use of the best and most recent data. Training can help to better equip staff to assess green infrastructure proposals. But investing in successful adaptation strategies is expensive. 1088. The Adaptation Strategies below offer possible ways to address anticipated climate risks to outdoor and indoor air quality. For example, to implement the adaptation scheme to the areas affected by the inundation event of ARI = 100 years, a net benefit can be achieved by the year 2050. There are often synergies and overlaps between mitigation and adaptation. Example resources include EPA's Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project and EPA's Impervious Surface Growth Model (ISGM). For example, work with the financial departments to establish an easy tracking and reporting protocol to collect data related to costs and savings of implemented green infrastructure projects. b) Linkages with the SDGs and other international frameworks and processes: To consider how other international frameworks and processes can be leveraged or take more actions to raise ambition to land and climate change adaptation. Also entails understanding the current design standard and whether performance can be an effective climate change climate change adaptation examples the. The auctioning of emission allowances under the Copenhagen agreement communities can work with universities make. 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