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23 Jan 2021

Updated September 4, 2019 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14 – 26 , which are based on Passage 210 below. So how long can a gene survive in a species if it is no longer used? there is no reason why evolution cannot run backwards -it is just very unlikely. In a paper published last year, biologist Gunter Wagner of Yale University reported some work on the evolutionary history of a group of South American lizards called Bachia. The salamander example fits with Raff’s 10million-year time frame. Also check: 1. On this page you can complete section 1. A it is easy to make excess staff redundant.. B crises occur if you are under-staffed.. C people are available to substitute for absent staff.. D they can project a positive image at work. But if silent genes degrade within 6 to million years, how can long-lost traits be reactivated over longer timescales? This is another solution post for candidates who have big difficulties in finding Reading Answers. From a detailed analysis of the salamanders’ family tree, however, it is clear that the other lineages evolved from an ancestor that itself had lost the ability to metamorphose. Evolution isn’t supposed to run backwards - yet an increasing number of examples show that it does and that it can sometimes represent the future of a species. Explorer Roy Chapman Andrews argued at the time that the whale must be a throwback to a land-living ancestor. One possibility is that these traits are lost and then simply reappear, in much the same way that similar structures can independently arise in unrelated species, such as the dorsal fins of sharks and killer whales. If Dollo’s law is right, atavisms should occur only very rarely, if at all. CAMBRIDGE IELTS 10 - TEST 4 - READING READING PASSAGE 1 Question 1-6: ... mindful of a principle of evolution that says „evolution cannot run backwards‟, But as more and more”) 33. In other words, metamorphosis in mole salamanders is an atavism. B. the way it exemplifies Dollo’s law. C the amount of local controversy it caused. Cambridge IELTS 10, Test 4, Reading Passage 3 : When evolution runs backwards You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14 – 26, which are based on Passage 210 below. B the way it exemplifies Dollo’s law. The answer may lie in the womb. In total 13 questions, 8 questions are Matching Information form, 5 … Second nature reading practice test has 13 questions belongs to the Nature & Environment subject. And so the idea of irreversibility in evolution stuck and came to be known as ‘Dollo’s law. Yet almost since the idea took root, exceptions have been cropping up. And so the idea of irreversibility in evolution stuck and came to be known as Dollo’s law.” – modified=qualified In other words, metamorphosis in mole salamanders is an atavism. They reasoned that while some evolutionary changes involve the loss of genes and are therefore irreversible, others may be the result of genes being switched off. For the better part of a century, most biologists have been reluctant to use those words, mindful of a principle of evolution that says … Evidence shows that the evolution of the Bachia lizard is due to the environment. When evolution runs backwards. The shark and killer whale are mentioned to exemplify36. The word has ugly connotations thanks largely to Cesare Lombroso, a 19th-century Italian medic who argued that criminals were born not made and could be identified by certain physical features that were throwbacks to a primitive, sub-human state. Not only are evolutionary throwbacks possible, they sometimes play an important role in the forward march of evolution. A. the question of how certain long-lost traits could reappear.B. Questions 37 – 40 Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 211? From a detailed analysis of the salamanders’ family tree, however, it is clear that the other lineages evolved from an ancestor that itself had lost the ability to metamorphose. The description of any animal as an ‘evolutionary throwback’ is controversial. Evolution isn’t supposed to run backwards - yet an increasing number of examples show that it does and that it can sometimes represent the future of a species. Cambridge IELTS 10, Test 4, Reading Passage 3 : When evolution runs backwards You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14 – 26, which are based on Passage 210 below. Explorer Roy Chapman Andrews argued at the time that the whale must be a throwback to a land-living ancestor. If these silent genes are somehow switched back on, they argued, long lost traits could reappear. More recently, however, examples have been reported that break the time limit, suggesting that silent genes may not be the whole story. But as more and more examples come to light and modern genetics enters the scene, that principle is having to be rewritten. Raff’s team went on to calculate the likelihood of it happening. Questions 32-36 Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below. Since then, so many other examples have been discovered that it no longer makes sense to say that evolution is as good as irreversible. Hind legs the way it exemplifies Dollo ’ s law a gene survive in a species if is. Salamander example fits with Raff ’ s law ’ was the first person to do research South... Mutations, they sometimes play an important role in the early twentieth century immediately referred to as ’! In mole salamanders is an ‘ evolutionary throwback ’ is controversial mole salamander because A. it was on! 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