cx; Eusebius "Hist. In 363, not long before Julian left Antioch to launch his campaign against Sassanian Persia, he ordered the Jewish Temple rebuilt in his effort to foster religions other than Christianity. ... Use complete sentences. A man by the name of Simon bar Kokhba. The 2013 discovery of the military camp of Legio VI Ferrata near Tel Megiddo, and ongoing excavations there may shed light to extension of the rebellion to the northern valleys. hence a double security arises to the rights of the people. The Roman army was made up of six full legions with auxiliaries and elements from up to six additional legions, which finally managed to crush the revolt. The Roman Army had meanwhile turned to eradicate smaller fortresses and hideout systems of captured villages, turning the conquest into a campaign of annihilation. Shimon Bar-Kokhba was the leader of the Jewish revolt against Rome between 132 and 135 C.E.  Hideout systems were employed in the Judean hills, the Judean desert, northern Negev, and to some degree also in Galilee, Samaria and Jordan Valley. Bar Kokhba Judaea’s Leaderless Revolt Against Rome The Second Temple was destroyed in the course of the Judaean Revolt (66–73 C.E.) This raised the hopes of the Jewish people initially. ... Maccabean revolt.
In AD 132, Shim'on Ben Koseba, a rebel leader who assumed the messianic name Shim'on Bar Kokhba ('Son of a Star'), led the people of Judaea in open rebellion, aiming to establish their own independent Jewish state and to liberate Jerusalem from the Romans. The Zionist youth movement Betar took its name from Bar Kokhba's traditional last stronghold, and David Ben-Gurion, Israel's first prime minister, took his Hebrew last name from one of Bar Kokhba's generals. The Romans lost as many as two legions. Legio V Macedonica and Legio XI Claudia are said to have taken part in the siege. Lindsay Powell's book, The Bar Kokhba War AD 132–135 tells the story of the last Jewish revolt over the Roman Empire. The Jews prepared to rebel until Rabbi Joshua ben Hananiah calmed them.  However, Eck's theory on battle in Tel Shalem is rejected by M. Mor, who considers the location unplausible given Galilee's minimal (if any) participation in the Revolt and distance from main conflict flareup in Judea proper. Dio Cassius also records the events in his Historia Romana.  "Ploughing up the Temple", seen as a religious offence, turned many Jews against the Roman authorities. vii.13. Only after several painful defeats in the field did the Romans decide to avoid open conflict and instead methodically besiege individual Judean cities. In 39 AD Emperor Caligula decreed that his statue be placed in every temple of the Empire, including the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, which offended Jewish religious sensibilities. Eusebius of Caesarea wrote that Jewish Christians were killed and suffered "all kinds of persecutions" at the hands of rebel Jews when they refused to help Bar Kokhba against the Roman troops. The governor of Judea, Tineius Rufus, performed the foundation ceremony, which involved ploughing over the designated city limits. Published on 18.05.2014. The Jews had the first one from which to learn and they were determined to do things differently. This is how the Jewish Encyclopedia in the Article 'Bar Kokhba and Bar Kokhba War' describes the situation before the Revolt: Even after R. Joshua ben Hanahiah succeeded in preventing the Jewish Revolt, the Jews remained quiet only on the surface; in reality, for over fifteen years they prepared for a struggle against Rome. It is estimated that forces from at least 10 legions participated in Severus' campaign in Judea, including Legio X Fretensis, Legio VI Ferrata, Legio III Gallica, Legio III Cyrenaica, Legio II Traiana Fortis, Legio X Gemina, cohorts of Legio V Macedonica, cohorts of Legio XI Claudia, cohorts of Legio XII Fulminata and cohorts of Legio IV Flavia Felix, along with 30-50 auxiliary units, for a total force of 60,000–120,000 Roman soldiers facing Bar Kokhba's rebels. Fought circa 132–136 CE, it was the last of three major Jewish–Roman wars, so it is also known as The Third Jewish–Roman War or The Third Jewish Revolt. There were several differences though between this fight and the first war. He first reconquered the Galilee to cut the Romans off from the sea.  The name Bar Kokhba does not appear in the Talmud but in ecclesiastical sources.  Bar Kokhba's fate is not certain, with two alternative traditions in the Babylonian Talmud ascribing the death of Bar Kokhba either to a snake bite or other natural causes during the Roman siege or possibly killed on the orders of the Sanhedrin, as a false Messiah. Archaeological evidence for the revolt was found all over the site, from the outside buildings to the water system under the mountain. The Jewish leaders carefully planned the second revolt to avoid numerous mistakes that had plagued the first Great Jewish Revolt sixty years earlier. In 355, however, the relations with the Roman rulers improved, upon the rise of Emperor Julian, the last of the Constantinian dynasty, who, unlike his predecessors, defied Christianity. The Jews then satisfied themselves with preparing secretly in case a rebellion would later become necessary. This view is largely supported by Cassius Dio, who wrote that the revolt began with covert attacks in line with preparation of hideout systems, though after taking over the fortresses Bar Kokhba turned to direct engagement due to his superiority in numbers.  Were the claim true it has been conjectured that Hadrian, as a Hellenist, would have viewed circumcision as an undesirable form of mutilation.  The common view that the name change was intended to "sever the connection of the Jews to their historical homeland" is disputed. There were several differences though between this fight and the first war. It was concluded that the Legion was disbanded between 120 and 197 CE - either as a result of fighting the Bar Kokhba revolt, or in Cappadocia (161), or at the Danube (162). By that time the number of Roman troops in Judea stood at nearly 80,000 - a number still inferior to rebel forces, who were also better familiar with the terrain and occupied strong fortifications. - Eventually, the Roman army took back Jerusalem from the Jews. When in A.D. Simon bar Kokhba declared Herodium as his secondary headquarters. Unlike the revolt of 66 CE, the historical sources on the Bar Kochba Revolt are scanty at best.  Despite this discovery, the Israel Antiques Authority still maintained the opinion that Jerusalem was not taken by the rebels, due to the fact that of thousands of Bar Kokhba coins had been found outside Jerusalem, but only four within the city (out of more than 22,000 found within the city). In addition, it is generally considered that Legio XXII Deiotoriana took part in the campaign, and was annihilated. The Talmud, for instance, refers to Bar Kokhba as "Ben-Kusiba," a derogatory term used to indicate that he was a false Messiah. This thesis will explore the immediate causes of the Bar Kokhba revolt and compare them to other provincial revolts in the Roman Empire. It was significant in that it took place at the very end of Trajan's reign and gave the future emperor, Hadrian, a taste of what he might have to contend with. In The Second Jewish Revolt: The Bar Kokhba War, 132-136 C.E., Menahem Mor offers a detailed account on the Bar Kokhba Revolt in an attempt to understand the second revolt against the Romans.Since the Bar Kokhba Revolt did not have a historian who devoted a comprehensive book to the event, Mor used a variety of historical materials including literary sources (Jewish, Christian, Greek and … The fact that Galilee retained its Jewish character after the end of the revolt has been taken as an indication by some that either the revolt was never joined by Galilee or that the rebellion was crushed relatively early there compared to Judea. With the subsequent withdrawal of Persian forces, Jews surrendered to the Byzantines in 625 CE or 628 CE, but were massacred by Christians in 629 CE, with the survivors fleeing to Egypt. , During the 5th and the 6th centuries, a series of Samaritan revolts broke out across the Palaestina Prima province. as 'unreliable and problematic,' states tensions rose after Hadrian banned circumcision, referred to as mutilare genitalia  taken to mean brit milah.  These coins include references to "Year One of the redemption of Israel", "Year Two of the freedom of Israel", and "For the freedom of Jerusalem". The reference to a malevolent Samaritan is, however, a familiar device of Jewish literature. Relations between the Jews in the region and the Roman Empire continued to be complicated. The first coin issued at the mint of Aelia Capitolina about 130/132 CE. “The province was united with Syria to form a single province called Syria-Palestine. Onias III … The stage was set for another confrontation. Enraged, Bar Kokhba confronted the elderly Rabbi Elazar, kicking him and causing his death. Some of these were personal letters between Bar Kokhba and his subordinates, and one notable bundle of papyri, known as the Babata or Babatha cache, revealed the life and trials of a woman, Babata, who lived during this period. [a] – per Cassius Dio  Although Rufus was in charge during the early phase of the uprising, he disappears from the record after 132 for unknown reasons. , The ruins of Betar, the last fortress of Bar Kokhba, destroyed by Hadrian's legions in 135 CE, is located in the vicinity of the towns of Battir and Beitar Illit. Severus arrived in 133. But more importantly, this movement had a leader. Following the Fall of Betar, the Roman forces went on a rampage of systematic killing, eliminating all remaining Jewish villages in the region and seeking out the refugees. Deleted this entire section - it anachronistically describes Hadrian as making it clear he was 'gay', a category that didn't exist at the time, and its only source is a … It was also among the key events to differentiate Christianity as a religion distinct from Judaism. In 132, a revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from Modi'in across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Jerusalem. And disdain turned to outrage when Hadrian, a well known Hellenist, outlawed circumcision the following year in 131, which he viewed as mutilation. carved on the face of a mountain. Despite easing the persecution of Jews following Hadrian's death in 138 CE, the Romans barred Jews from Jerusalem, except for attendance in Tisha B'Av. The first conflict, known as the Jewish War or the First Revolt, was fought from A.D. 66 to 70; the second conflict, known as the Bar Kokhba War, raged from A.D. 132 to 135. This rebellion later became known as the Bar-Kokhba revolt. Gaius Publicus Marcellus, the Legate of Roman Syria, arrived commanding Legio III Gallica, while Titus Haterius Nepos, the governor of Roman Arabia, brought Legio III Cyrenaica. Imagine the incredible excitement of those involved in the discovery of the caves when they learned they had finally uncovered the final resting place of Bar-Kokhba and others who were with him.  In 132, the revolt, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Elasar, quickly spread from Modi'in across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Jerusalem. Hadrian wasted little time though in transferring his best general, Sextus Julius Severus, from Britain to Judea, along with twelve legions (about three times as many as were sent during the first revolt). - Simeon Bar Kochba and his army were finally defeated at the city of Beitar. , Following a series of setbacks, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britannia, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. The Jewish communities of Judea were devastated to an extent which some scholars describe as a genocide. In the post-rabbinical era, the Bar Kokhba Revolt became a symbol of valiant national resistance. The sacred scrolls of Judaism were ceremonially burned at the large Temple complex for Jupiter which he built on the Temple Mount. Judaea was almost completely devastated, and Jewish life shifted from Judaea to the Galilee. Shalev-Hurvitz, V. Oxford University Press 2015. p235, "Ancient Inscription Identifies Gargilius Antiques as Roman Ruler on Eve of Bar Kochva Revolt", A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, "Roman provincial coin of Hadrian [image]", "The Bar Kochba Revolt: A Disaster Celebrated by Zionists on Lag Ba'Omer", "Julian the Apostate and the Holy Temple", Evans, J.A.S. At this Temple, he installed two statues, one of Jupiter, another of himself.  Roman casualties were also considered heavy – XXII Deiotariana was disbanded after serious losses. Jewish communities of Galilee who sent militants to the revolt in Judea were largely spared total destruction, though they did suffer persecutions and massive executions. , In 132, the revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from central Judea across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). Instead of a procurator, they installed a praetor as a governor and stationed an entire legion, the X Fretensis, in the area. The Bar Kokhba revolt (Hebrew: מֶרֶד בַּר כּוֹכְבָא ; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.Fought circa 132–136 CE, it was the last of three major Jewish–Roman wars, so it is also known as The Third Jewish–Roman War or The Third Jewish Revolt. Betar, Fall of (8) Bar Kokhba Revolt (Book) By Yosef Eisen.  According to Jewish tradition, the fortress was breached and destroyed on the fast of Tisha B'av, the ninth day of the lunar month Av, a day of mourning for the destruction of the First and the Second Jewish Temple. The outbreak and initial success of the rebellion took the Romans by surprise. The slogans on the Bar Kokhba coins proclaimed the ‘Freedom of Israel’ and ‘For the Freedom of Jerusalem’. , The size of the Roman army amassed against the rebels was much larger than that commanded by Titus sixty years earlier - nearly one third of the Roman army took part in the campaign against Bar Kokhba. A stone inscription bearing Latin characters and discovered near Betar shows that the Fifth Macedonian Legion and the Eleventh Claudian Legion took part in the siege. The Jews had the first one from which to learn and they were determined to do things differently. , After the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), the Roman authorities took measures to suppress the rebellious province of Roman Judea. Rabbinical literature ascribes the defeat to Bar Kokhba killing his maternal uncle, Rabbi Elazar Hamudaʻi, after suspecting him of collaborating with the enemy, thereby forfeiting Divine protection. David Ussishkin: "Archaeological Soundings at Betar, Bar-Kochba's Last Stronghold", in: This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 19:37. They are, for the most part, military dispatches and they confirm the historicity of the revolt while casting light on the nature of the administration of Judea by the rebels.  Inside one of the caves, burned wood was found which was dated to the time of the revolt. The fortress was besieged by the Romans in late 134 and was taken by the end of the year or early in 135. But they killed about 500,000. , A 2015 archaeological survey in Samaria identified some 40 hideout cave systems from the period, some containing Bar Kokhba's minted coins, suggesting that the war raged in Samaria at high intensity.. , The disastrous end of the revolt also occasioned major changes in Jewish religious thought. They built hideouts in caves and did shoddy work building weapons so that the Romans would reject the weapons and return them to the Jews. The Jewish sage Rabbi Akiva, who was the spiritual leader of the revolt, identified Simon Bar Kosiba as the Jewish messiah, and gave him the surname "Bar Kokhba" meaning "Son of a Star" in the Aramaic language, from the Star Prophecy verse from Numbers 24:17: "There shall come a star out of Jacob". Many Jews from the diaspora made their way to Judea to join Bar Kokhba's forces from the beginning of the rebellion, with the Talmud recorded tradition that hard tests were imposed on recruits due to the inflated number of volunteers. He expressed sympathy for the plight of the Jews and made a promise to rebuild their temple. As a result of the revolt the Jewish community in Judea was eliminated, the Roman province of Judea became the province of … Works on Aelia Capitolina, as Jerusalem was to be called, commenced in 131 CE.  The proximate reasons seem to centre around the construction of a new city, Aelia Capitolina, over the ruins of Jerusalem and the erection of a temple to Jupiter on the Temple mount. Eccl." It is not known whether the revolt spread outside of Judea. 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