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23 Jan 2021

In western Sindh, Lake Manchar flooded an enormous area during the inundation, and the retreating floodwaters left fertile ground highly suitable for cultivation. It is also referred to as Harappan Civilization owing to the fact that this civilization was first discovered in 1921 at the modern site of Harappa situated in the Punjab province, Pakistan. The Mesopotamians called the Indus Region ‘Meluhha’. Pretty much every part of their general public, from the urban areas they worked to the innovation they created, was to guarantee that they could make high-caliber and gainful exchange items for the civic establishments. Nature of Sumerian-Harappan Trade Relations: History and ethnography show many patterns of trade, exchange, and the acquisition of goods. First, they could have acted simply as tokens establishing an individual’s identity or credentials. These considerations, coupled with the attested presence of resident Harappans in Sumer, make it certain that the Harappans were trading with southern Mesopotamia for their own profit and that through this trade they acquired commodities important to them, despite the paucity of evidence for these imports. One sherd of Indus pottery from Mohenjodaro bears a scratched picture of such a device, a simple T- shaped arrangement of an upright and a horizontal pole, with a bucket on one side and a counterweight on the other. Some of these seals had recognizably Harappan sign sequences, but in other cases the inscriptions included some signs or sign combinations unknown in the Indus region, suggesting that they rendered non-Harappan names or words. Coastal fishing communities were probably regularly in contact with those in adjacent areas and across the mouth of the Gulf, and those of the Arabian Sea coast of Oman may also have been in contact with others along Arabia’s southern coasts. They put their seals on containers of trade goods, and these seals have been found as far as Mesopotamia. It seems to have had a keel, a flat bottom, and high bows, with a lower stem. Crawford (1998, 126) suggests that the under representation of women and children among the burials at Umm-an-Nar may reflect the role of this settlement as a specialist center for traders and sailors without families. It was among the cultivated plants at the Late Harappan site of Hulas where both wild and cultivated indica rice were identified. Doors, to houses or storerooms, could similarly be sealed, a practice attested at the Helmand city of Shahr-i Sokhta and in Mesopotamian literary sources, though not known from any Harappan site. Teak, generally useful and particularly suitable for shipbuilding because it is water-resistant, grew on the high ground in Gujarat, and in lower parts of the region barn grass (Sorghum halepensis) yielded tough tubular stems up to 5 meters long that were suitable for making smaller boats. Seasonal movement was an important part of the pastoral economy in Harappan times, and it seems highly probable that people taking their animals through different parts of the Indus realms would have acted as carriers, moving goods from source to consumer and participating in a complex network of connections among pastoral groups from different regions, enabling the produce of one region to be transported to others. If comparable documents were created by the Harappans, they were made of perishable materials of which no trace remains. The Indus Valley economy was vigorously founded on trade; it was one of the most significant qualities of this progress. Islands off the western shore also offered opportunities for settlement. Similarly, there were lapidary workshops both near the sources of agate, carnelian, and other gemstones and in major settlements far from these sources. It was a major crop in China, having been brought under cultivation in the seventh millennium BC, and was being grown as far west as Tepe Gaz Tavila in southeast Iran by the sixth millennium. In the valleys and plains of the Indus and Saraswati Rivers, their tributaries, and other smaller rivers mixed farming was highly profitable; rain and other local water resources also supported farming in other regions, such as Baluchistan, sometimes with the help of irrigation. Such foragers are difficult to identify or distinguish archaeologically from other Harappans. Hunting and Gathering of Forest Resources: The fanning communities of the Indus and neighboring regions had always continued to exploit some wild resources alongside those derived from arable agriculture and pastoralism, and it seems that this practice increased and broadened in the Mature Harappan period. Administration in Indus Valley Civilization. Direct seaborne communications through the Gulf were now established between the Indus civilization and Mesopotamia, the main Near Eastern consumer of imported raw materials. 93. Groundwater, rivers, lakes, streams, and especially floodwaters sufficed. Vessels constructed in this way are very resilient. The presence of traded Indus material, such as the cache of nine hundred agate and carnelian beads at Burzahom, reflects the importance to the Harappans of Himalayan timber, exploited over a broad front. Other fruits that may have been grown or collected locally include caper, mango, and sugarcane, and adjacent regions may also have supplied fruits, vegetables, and nuts, including cucumbers, pistachios, almonds, and walnuts, all known from sites farther west; walnuts have also been recovered from Hulas, along with the fruit of the pipal tree (Ficus religiosa). It has been suggested that wild plants were collected particularly when cultivated crops were unable to supply the full needs of the community, either because of bad harvests or because of population increase in the region. Instead it is probable that rice was among the wild plants consumed by grazing cattle resulting in rice husks being present in their dung, which was used for fuel and a tempering agent in pottery. This might be taken to indicate that the Indus people brought canal irrigation technology with them when they settled here; however, the Namazga culture in adjacent southern Turkmenia, from whom it is likely that the inhabitants of Shortugai acquired the broomcorn millet that they cultivated, had long experience of canal irrigation that may have inspired the inhabitants of Shortugai. The Indus Valley was an agricultural society, but trade was very important. Almost every aspect of their society, from the cities they built to the technology they developed, was to ensure that they could create high-quality and profitable trade products for the civilizations the Indus people traded with. Agricultural economy thrived in the Indus Valley civilization.On lands surrounding the cities, farmers constructed dams and levees to channel water from the rivers to crops of wheat and barley. In the case of Indus-Valley Civilization, They obtained Copper from the Khetri mines of Rajasthan and brought Tin from the Afghanistan and Hazaribagh region.The Bronze Smith made Bronze tools by Lost-Wax Technique. Trade routes through the major valleys of the borderlands linked the Indus Basin to Seistan and Afghanistan and beyond them to the Iranian plateau and Central Asia. For example, hunter-gatherer communities in Saurashtra in the late fourth millennium began to make pottery that was distinct from the Kechi Beg wares of the contemporary inhabitants of Baluchistan, adopting the technology but inventing their own styles; this phenomenon is paralleled in other parts of the world, for example, in Europe, when hunter-gatherers and farmers came into close contact. In most parts of the world, me development of farming ultimately spelled the end of hunting and gathering as a way of life, due to competition for land and the destruction of the parts of the environment on which hunter-gatherers depended. Sea trade also gave the Harappans access to the resources and markets of the cultures in the Gulf. The trade network probably operated along a riverine route, particularly through Kalibangan, located some 250 kilometers to the north of Ganeshwar along the Kantali River, which was tributary to the Drishadvati in antiquity. scale pans here are made of copper. The trees at higher altitudes in the mountains included deodar and pine, known from Harappa and Mohenjodaro and used in buildings and for other purposes; both are fragrant woods, as is sissoo. Personal seals could also have been used by individuals to establish their identity in private transactions. Traffic through the Bolan pass would now have come almost exclusively from southern Baluchistan, passing through the Quetta Valley- The use of this route is indicated by the presence of Kulli material in Nausharo in the Kachi plain. They continued to trade with Magan throughout the third millennium, receiving copper, timber, red ochre, turtles, diorite, and olivine-gabbro in return for wool, textiles and garments, oil, hides, large quantities of barley, and bitumen. If the Indus realms were not a united states but a series of smaller polities, the seals might similarly have been used as identifiers by individuals who passed between the polities on the business of trade and resource procurement. Small cubical weights, ranging from one to sixty-four times the smallest unit of 0.871 grams, were present in all sizes of settlements, while major towns and cities also had heavier weights, up to 10.865 kilograms (12,800 units). Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The economy of the Indus civilization was based on animal husbandry, particularly of zebu cattle, and on arable agriculture, growing cereals, pulses, and other plants. This seems to have ebbed and flowed. Canal irrigation is attested to at Shortugai, the Indus outpost in northern Afghanistan at the confluence of the Amu Darya and Kokcha Rivers- A canal has been traced that drew off water from the Kokcha. Hunter-gatherers were probably involved in the chain of communications. It took over Shortugai and its region and ended the Indus lapis trade. - boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail. Other minerals occurring there include turquoise, sodalite (a mineral resembling lapis lazuli), zinc, gold, silver, and lead, though there is no evidence that these were extracted there during the Indus period. Trade and Traders: Trade would have been facilitated by a major advance in transport technology. Boats like these with a shallow draft can be used on the Indus except during the most turbulent period of the summer inundation; other branches of the modern Indus, such as the Western Nara, are navigable for most of the year. Dorian Fuller (2001, personal communication), an archaeobotanist with a detailed knowledge of South Asian plants, cautions that it is likely that some claimed occurrences of ragi are based on a misidentification of Setaria spp., Echinochloa colona (Sawa millet), or Brachiaria ramosa (browntop millet), all native South Asian millets; a native weedy grass (Eleucine indica) was also abundant at Rojdi. Food surpluses supported the large population and prompted the growth of trade. They could also act as carriers, transmitting the commodities of one settled region to the inhabitants of another; in exchange they could receive both foodstuffs, such as grain, and goods whose manufacture was beyond their own technological capabilities, such as copper knives. Questions about trade networks, economics, and market practices among the ancient Indus Valley peoples. By the late fourth millennium, the Mesopotamians were trading with a land they called Dilmun. Whereas in earlier times, local sources of flint were exploited by the inhabitants of each region, during the Harappan period the very high-quality brownish gray flint of the Rohri Hills was intensively extracted and distributed to every part of the Indus polity, either as a raw material or in the form of finished artifacts- For example, most of the stone tools at Balakot were acquired in finished form. A small platform in front of the cab provided a seat for the driver. In the Mature Harappan period it was grown in both the Indus Valley and Baluchistan. The Indus Valley economy was heavily based on trading, it was one of the most important characteristics of this civilization. Cotton was one of the most important product of the Indus Valley trade. The stylistic similarities with BMAC material were particularly marked in Baluchistan and the Kachi plain, where in addition there were camel and horse figurines at Pirak after 1700 BC. Often the copper ore occurs in association with arsenic- when smelted, arsenical copper ore produces a useful natural alloy that is harder than pure copper. Coloured gemstones such as turquoise, lapis and lazuli wer… Ancient India Economy. The economy of the Indus Valley was based on trade; There was trade in the borders of the civilization and there was trade with Mesopotamia; Carts and boats, the product of technological advancements, were also used in trade; Because the Indus Valley had a lot of water they could irrigate crops well; Barley and wheat were the main crops A number of Harappan seals, beads, and ivory inlays and a Harappan weight were found at Susa, the Elamite capital, and gaming boards of similar design are known from Susa and Lothal. In the central region, Sindh, the Indus-Ganges doab, and perhaps the western Saraswati, the floods filled numerous hollows (dhands), which for some months acted as reservoirs from which to draw water to irrigate the crops; many held water until December and some as late as February. The Indus people probably used lifting gear such as the shadoof to raise irrigation water from these and from streams and channels. During the Mature Harappan period, when the Harappans dominated the Makran coastal region, the volume of this Iran-Magan trade became negligible. It was situated on higher ground, from which the water could run down to the fields. During the early second millennium, a number of plants of African origin appeared in Gujarat and were incorporated into the range of crops grown by the local Harappans. Later this region had several different styles of Harappan pottery (Sindhi and Sorath), but its inhabitants were no longer pursuing a hunter- gatherer way of life. These became more developed in the fourth millennium, with a number of trading towns growing up in the Iranian plateau, particularly at nodes in the trade routes, some procuring raw materials, some working local or imported materials, and most reaping the benefits of transit trade. Advancement in technology led to carts and early boats that were used as the main method of trade and travel. These were supplemented by the exploitation of wild resources, such as fish. Discuss the origin, urbanization, economy, and decline of the Indus Valley Civilization There is evidence, however, of the widespread cultivation of a species of Brassica, brown mustard (Indian rape), and of gourds in the Mature Harappan period, and later of ivy gourd, while okras were grown at Balathal in the neighboring Ahar-Banas region. When the archaeologists started exploring this place, many proofs regarding the Harappan culture and Indus Valley trade … Trade wasn’t always about getting what you needed. Harappan pottery was present in some settlements such as Periano Ghundai, Rana Ghundai, and Sur Jangal- Often the Harappan material was concentrated in a small part of the settlement. In contrast to the northern borderlands, southern Baluchistan, home to what is known as the Kulli culture, remained closely linked with the Indus civilization. Often individual workshops concentrated on producing a particular type of shell artifact or on working a particular variety of shell. Drawing water from them would have been a labor-intensive activity, requiring considerable animal power, though in areas subject to summer flooding only shallow wells were needed to reach the high water table. These carts were drawn by oxen or bullocks, of which there are also terracotta models. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Vedic Culture and the Indus Civilization | Indian History, Difference between Indus Valley Civilization and Vedic Civilization, History of Pre-Indus Civilization | India, History of Indus Valley Civilization | India, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. 2700-2000 BC. Coastal communications by sea would have linked communities within Gujarat, and those of Gujarat with those of the Makran coast. There were urban areas, but there also rural areas. The Harappans’ export of timber to Babylonia is of great significance in this context. These lay on routes running mainly east-west through the Iranian plateau, but a route to the seacoast around modem Minab and Bandar Abbas, opposite the northern tip of Oman, connected them with the sea. Trade was based on the barter system. Small quantities of Harappan material in the Quetta Valley show that a limited amount of interaction occurred with the people of what had earlier been the Damb Sadaat region. Fishing communities in the Gulf, however, probably continued to interact with their neighbours. In contrast, in other areas, such as the north Gujarat plain, hunter-gatherers were culturally distinct and were among the many groups with whom the Harappans traded. These are virtually identical to those of modern farmers of the Indus region. The Indo-Iranian borderlands had been culturally integrated with the Indus Basin during the Early Harappan and preceding periods, but major changes had occurred with the cultural unification of the Indus civilization. The raw materials of different regions were also transported to other parts of the Indus realms. The preservation of plant remains is often poor, depending on local conditions, the type of plant, and chance. At Rojdi, about a quarter of the plant food came from wild sources; more than a dozen species of wild plants were utilized at Harappa; and the balance between wild and domestic plant foods was likely to have been regionally and locally variable. Over subsequent centuries, it expanded west and south. Whatever their precise use, the very existence of a system of weights standardized through the Indus region implies official control and the regulation of the movement of commodities. The city workers used to make Pots, Plates, and glasses out of mud and clay to sell them. Rice is indigenous to parts of South and East Asia, including the Indus region and the Ganges Valley. 3200-2700 BC, and Umm an-Nar period, ca. Indus valley people had a good trade relations with Mesopotamian and Persian civilizations. It also expanded into Seistan, bringing it into the vicinity of the Indus realms. The Indus Civilization Trade with the Oman Peninsula Dennys Frenez Cosmopolitan interactions and exchanges played an important role in the Oman Peninsula during the Early Bronze Age, including the so-called Hafit period, ca. The fine examples of wells in Indus towns show the high level of Harappan competence in constructing them. The presence of an unbroken clay sealing could also act as a guarantee that the sealed package had not been opened or tampered with before it reached the intended recipient. These were carried downriver to other Harappan regions and also exported overseas. This combination of high but unpredictable productivity must have made it advantageous to develop storage practices and facilities wells tapping the high water table of the river valleys, and there as also some summer and winter rainfall. Horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) was domesticated in South India during the same period and is known from Late Harappan Hulas. The most distant (and surprising) outpost was at Shortugai in Afghanistan. Agriculture in the mature Harappan period, as in its antecedent cultures in the Indo-Iranian borderlands, was based on wheat, barley, pulses, sheep, goats, and cattle, the same assemblage of crops and animals as the cultures to the west in the Iranian plateau, southern Central Asia, and West Asia, most of which had originally been domesticated in West Asia. The spread first of pastoral groups and later of farmers into the Indus plains and beyond into Gujarat and the Indo- Gangetic divide brought fanners and hunter-gatherers into closer contact, and in many areas this led to acculturation. The Indus town of Lothal in Saurashtra lay on the border between the agricultural lands of the Indus civilization and the sparsely inhabited north Gujarat plain, home to hunter-gatherer groups, and was not far from the sea. Only in the Late Harappan period did farming settlements spread onto the moisture retentive, black cotton soils in other parts of Saurashtra, where kharif crops could be raised, watered by rainfall brought by the summer monsoon. The Indus people were a civilization that was built on the practice of trade with other civilizations of the day. The establishment of new Harappan settlements along the Makran coast reflected the development of this maritime trade. Harappan etched camelian and long barrel camelian beads were found at Susa, as well as a cylinder seal with a Harappan bull-and-manger design and some Indus script signs, and a round seal with a bull and six Harappan signs. Agate and other gemstones for making beads may also have been obtained by hunter- gatherers. Ebony was available in the forests of the Western Ghats but has not been found in Harappan sites, though it may be referred to in Mesopotamian texts as an import from the Indus (sulum meluhhi, “black wood of Meluhha,” alternatively identified as rosewood). The Harappans expended considerable efforts to acquire this stone, even establishing a special procurement center, yet this was almost entirely for trade with Mesopotamia, given that they themselves made little use of it. Furthermore, it seems that it was the Harappans who took the initiative in the trade between their countries, rather than the Sumerians, despite the fact that Sumer and Akkad had a great need to engage in trade to obtain the goods necessary for daily life (such as metals) and for other, prestige purposes, such as the embellishment of temples and the enhancement of royal status. Nevertheless, there remains a considerable degree of uniformity in the material found throughout the Indus realms, reflecting a culturally integrated polity with strongly developed internal distribution networks. The Indus civilization apparently evolved from the villages of neighbours or predecessors, using the Mesopotamian model of irrigated agriculture with sufficient skill to reap the advantages of the spacious and fertile Indus River valley while controlling the formidable annual flood that simultaneously fertilizes and destroys. The economy depended greatly on trade. Trade was conducted within the civilization as well as with Mesopotamia. The economy depended greatly on trade, the inhabitants of the Indus Valley traded with Mesopotamia, Southern India, Afghanistan, and Persia for gold, silver, copper, and turquoise. 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